Many mutation of this beautiful bird have been developed. The blue mutation was first breed in Australia in 1951 by Mr G Ruddle this is and Australian first Mutation. This mutation is a very pleasing shade of blue and grey. The pink areas are replaced with white.
The next mutation to arrive on the scene was the spectacular Lutino, this mutation had it beginnings in East Germany in the mid 1970's and legally imported during the 1990's. The bird is bright yellow with a white belly. The pink on the throat, legs and tail are retained giving a very nice contrast, the eyes are red. Some birds carry a green overlay over their wings. Some strains have so much green on their wings the term Lime is used to denote these birds.
Both the Blue and Lutino are autosomal recessive and when paired will give double spit offspring (split Blue and Lutino). Double split to double spit will give you several possibilities, one of which is White. Thus the White mutation is alive and well. The Albino is white coloured bird, most cock bird show a light blue overlay over the wings, a darker blue underneath the wing and some purple to the rump.
The faded green mutation is an Australian mutation established and developed by Gerry Rutte of Stirling Parrot farm South Australia. The name cinnamon persists in use for this mutation, despite it being autosomal recessive and not sex-linked as it must be for the Cinnamon mutation. The eyes are plumb when hatched but only remains a few days. When the faded is combined with the Blue mutation to produce a faded blue (silver) you end up with delicate soft blue and grey colour bird.
The Pallid (Formally known as Dilute, Australia Cinnamon and Sex Linked Lime) mutation is an Australian mutation which was established by Errol Wilson of Nowra NSW.
Robert Lew has developed the Cinnamon mutation.
The Sex Linked Cinnamons isn’t the same bird as the incorrectly named Faded Cinnamon (developed by Gerry Rutte) which isn't sex linked but recessive.
There are several new mutations under development and some are now available in limited numbers.
Cobalt, Mauve, Dark Green (Jade), Olive, Violet, Silver Cobalt, Cinnamon Cobalt, Pallid Cobalt, Pallid Blue, Cobalt White Lime, Ivory = Blue Cinnamon, Pied, Parblue, Creamino, Lavender, Cinnamon (Sex Linked), Red Fronted, Violet and many others.
The Blue, NSL Lutino, NSL Lime, White, White Lime, Faded and Faded Blue (Silver) are autosomal recessive mutations.
Note the Faded Cinnamon is incorrectly named as it is a recessive mutation where as the Cinnamon Mutation must be sexed linked.
The recessive mutation is recessive to the normal coloured bird. The first mutation can appear in either male or female. If a recessive mutation is mated to a normal coloured bird all off spring will be split to the mutated colour. All these off springs are referred to as splits. To produce the recessive mutation both parents must be either mutated or split to the mutated colour.
1. Normal x mutation = 100% normal coloured off spring split to the mutation.
2. Normal/Mutation x Normal/Mutation = will give you 25% normal coloured off spring. 50% Normal/mutation and 25% mutation coloured off spring.
3. Mutation x normal/Mutation = will give 50% normal/mutation and 50% Mutations.
4. Mutation x Mutation = will give 100% mutations.
Dark Factor Green & Olive
The dark factor effects a completely different part of the feather structure and can be used with other mutations creating some beautiful new mutations. Dark green is called Jaded and is a single dark factor green bird. The Jade is just slightly darker then the normal green bird. The olive is a double factor dark green bird and is much easier to distinguish against the normal green and Jade Bird.
Cobalt & Mauve
Again this mutation affects the pigment of the melanin. Cobalt is a single dark factor blue which is darker than a blue bird. The Mauve is a double dark factor blue which is darker than a cobalt.
The Cobalt = (Single Dark Factor Blue), Mauve = (Double Dark Factor Blue) Jade = (Single Dark Factor Green), Olive = (Double Dark Factor Green), Silver Cobalt, Pied are dominant mutation.
The Dominated mutation as the name suggest is dominate over the normal bird. You can have single or double factors in a dominate mutation. The birds are either normal or the dominate mutation, you can not have a bird which is split to the dominate mutation.
1. Normal x dominate = 50% normal and 50% dominate off spring.
2. Dominate x dominate = 25% normal, 25% double factor dominate and 50% single factor dominate off spring.
Sex Linked Cinnamon
The true Cinnamon is a sex linked mutation which cannot produce black or grey colour in any shade. The princess parrot cinnamon bird is visually a lighter green but has a cinnamon tone over the back. How can you be sure it's a cinnamon mutation. Firstly must be sex linked. Secondly mustn't have any black or grey feathers, you can clarify by examining the feathers under a microscope. Cinnamon birds have very light coloured feet and toe nails. Cinnamon birds are born with red or plum coloured eyes but so are many other mutations so this can't be the only distinguishing feature when deciding if you have a cinnamon mutation. The Blue Cinnamon (Ivory) is the same as above but blue with a cinnamon tone.
Sex Linked Pallid
The Pallid (Formally known as Dilute, Australian Cinnamon and Sex Linked Lime), Blue Pallid (Formally known as Blue Dilute, Silver Cinnamon) and Pallid Cobalt are sex-linked mutations.
The Pallid has had several names changes over the years but finally we have agreement on its correct identity. Thanks to Martin Woodward article in the February-March 2020 Australian Blue Keeper all the confusion has been put to bed. Dr Terry Martin has also supported and confirmed Martin Woodward findings.
Sex Linked Genetics
It is called as the name implies it is linked to the sex of the bird. The first mutant to always appear is female.
1. Normal cock x Sex linked Hen will produce 100% normal hens and all the cocks will be split to the sex linked mutation.
And if you were to put one of the normal/sex linked mutation cock over a normal hen you would produce the following.
2. Normal/sex linked cock x normal hen = 50% normal/sex linked cocks, 50% normal cocks, 50% normal hens and 50% sex linked mutated birds. Hens can not be split they can only be normal or mutated.
3. Normal/sex linked Cock x Sex Linked Hen = 50% normal/sex linked cocks, 50% sex linked mutated cocks, 50% normal hens and 50% sex linked mutated hens.
4. Sex linked cock x Sex linked hen = 100% sex linked mutated cocks and 100% sex linked mutated hens.
Is a genetic aberration whereby one half of a bird is one colour and the other half is a different colour. For example one half can be green and the other half blue or half yellow and the other half white.
Refer photo in Photo Gallery.
I believe the Red Suffused is and acquired colour and could be establish with selected breeding.
I feel more research should be conducted before naming a new mutation other wise we end up naming mutations with names that aren't relevant and creates confusion for the future, which will be difficult to rectify down the track.
There are several excellent reference books available. I really like A Guide to Colour Mutations & Genetics in Parrots, by Dr Terry Martin BVSc. I found this book to be informative, very easy to understand, excellent photos and descriptions. If you are serious about understanding mutations within parrots I would recommend having this book in your collection of reading material.